The Evolution of Film Editing
Have you considered the fact that the term film editor didn’t exist not that long ago?
Why might this be?
There was no need for editors back then because digital visual effects didn’t exist. People attempted to create illusions creatively by using what objects they had.
Today we have visual effects. Visual effects play an essential role in media and the film industry. What took hours or weeks to get right in a video shot now takes a couple of hours of work.
Editors have all sorts of different tools available to them. Even simple things like creating a border for a video are a big hassle. You only need one software like the one offered by Vista here https://create.vista.com/features/add-frame-to-video/.
Early Film Making
Pioneers in the film business encountered various hurdles while exploring the possibilities of this new medium in the early days.
Early filmmakers used creativity and resourcefulness to bring their ideas to reality, from creating editing techniques to overcoming technical limits.
Predecessors to Film Editing
Before cinema, several visual and technological advancements established the groundwork for film editing.
Photography and Stop Motion
The invention of photography in the nineteenth century created the foundation for capturing still images. Stop motion photography, in which a succession of discrete frames is merged to give the appearance of motion, was a forerunner to film editing.
Chronophotography, pioneered by Eadweard Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey, entailed capturing a series of still photographs to give the effect of motion.
This technique helped filmmakers understand movement and was the first step forward in early cinema editing efforts.
Magic Lantern Shows
Magic lanterns, which projected hand-painted glass slides, were popular entertainment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Magic lantern shows used projected images to tell stories and encouraged early filmmakers to explore visual narratives.
Challenges Faced by Early Filmmakers
Due to technological restrictions and a lack of established methodologies, early filmmakers faced several obstacles.
1. Camera Limitations
The first cameras in the world were very bulky and difficult to move around, making it challenging to capture scenes that had a dynamic sense or involved complex movements with the camera. This was a significant restriction to filmmakers as they couldn’t convey action either.
2. Film Stock Constraints
Early film stock had limited sensitivity to light, resulting in the need for bright lighting conditions. This restriction affected filming locations and hindered filmmakers’ ability to capture certain scenes effectively.
3. Lack of Editing Tools
Dedicated editing equipment and procedures were unavailable to filmmakers in the early days. Films were frequently shot in a linear fashion, with little opportunity to rearrange or manipulate scenes during post-production.
Birth of Film Editing
The “lack” of film editing tools implies they did not exist. The invention of film editing was a watershed moment in the growth of cinema, allowing filmmakers to build narratives and create meaning through the arrangement of pictures.
Early Pioneers and Their Contributions
Many early pioneers gave notable contributions to the advancement of film editing techniques.
Georges Méliès pioneered techniques such as multiple exposures and stop tricks, which required pausing the camera to modify the scene or actors. He was known for his inventive use of visual effects and narrative storytelling.
Edwin S. Porter is another famous pioneer in film editing. The first narrative film, “The Great Train Robbery” (1903), is credited to Porter. He dabbled with cross-cutting, parallel action, and editing for narrative effect.
Development of Editing Techniques and Theories
Editing techniques and philosophies began to evolve as filmmaking advanced.
With development, and continuity editing, also known as the “invisible cut,” aimed to maintain visual coherence and seamless narrative flow. It emphasized matching screen direction, eyelines, and smooth transitions to create a seamless viewing experience.
The power of montage editing was explored by Soviet filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein. They used quick picture juxtaposition to elicit emotional responses, convey abstract ideas, and make intellectual linkages between images.
Classical Hollywood Editing
Classical Hollywood editing is a set of editing standards developed by Hollywood studios. It emphasized linear storytelling, establishing shots for speech, shot-reverse shots for discourse, and the 180-degree rule to maintain spatial coherence.
Traditional Editing Techniques
Traditional editing procedures were the art form’s foundation, setting the groundwork for later developments.
Linear Editing and the Invention of Splicing
Physically cutting and splicing film strips together was used in early cinema editing. It was used to create a constant succession of pictures. This linear editing method needed meticulous preparation and precision.
Introduction of Continuity Editing
The goal of continuity editing, popularized in classic Hollywood films, was to maintain a continuous flow of action and narrative coherence, with the intent to maintain visual continuity and smooth transitions. Techniques such as shot-reverse shot, match cuts, and eyeline matching were used.
Impact of Editing on Storytelling
Film editing significantly impacted storytelling by allowing filmmakers to manage time, produce emotional effects, and change the audience’s experience. The pacing was controlled, the suspense was built, the subtext was conveyed, and different narrative structures were explored using editing techniques.
Montage and the Exploration of Juxtaposition
Montage editing, influenced by Soviet filmmakers, used juxtaposing shots to achieve intellectual and emotional effects. It enabled the compression of time, the transmission of abstract ideas, and the investigation of thematic linkages.
Editing has seen a lot of development in recent years. Editing has seen great change and will continue to do so as technology evolves.